How To Grow Marijuana Legally In Oklahoma Learn More Here

OK, so we’re going to continue
now with lecture number nine,
which is on marijuana.
Also known as cannabis.
Also known as pot and Mary Jane.
You pick your name for it.
It’s certainly a
well known commodity
on most college campuses.
So today we’re going to do
an introduction to cannabis,
talk a little bit
about it’s history.
Then we’ll dive into
how cannabis affects
the brain, specifically how
it affects neurotransmitter
systems.
We’ll talk about its
pharmacokinetic properties,
the pharmacodynamics of THC,
its physiological effects,
psychological effects.

Read How To Grow Marijuana Legally In Oklahoma Learn More Here

We’ll talk about
tolerance and dependence.
We’ll talk a little bit about
potential for medical marijuana
and a few of the issues
of legalizing marijuana
and talk about a
couple of issues
open for discussion and
marijuana and public policy.
I’ll be following this up
with a discussion of some
of the important open
public policy questions
about regulating
marijuana that I
think are going to become very
important over the next several
years as marijuana
has increasing
popularity as a legalized drug.
So to give some background,
this is the most commonly used
illegal drug in the world.
It is also the
most controversial.
It is difficult to classify.
It acts somewhat
like a sedative.
But it’s completely unlike
any barbiturate sedatives
that we’ll talk about
in the coming weeks,
because in high doses it may
alter perceptions and even
relief pain, but does not
produce any sort of anesthesia,
coma, or cause any
reductions in respiration.
There’s not much cross tolerance
between active ingredients
for THC and either
LSD or barbiturates.
Meaning that it
does have some sort
of independent
mechanism of action
that’s completely independent
of what we might have
thought of from other drugs.
So it indicates that it is
a completely different class
altogether.
So who smokes pot?
Well, the most common–
or cannabis or marijuana–
the most common age
group using marijuana
should come as no surprise
is people who are 18 to 25.
The most rapidly
increasing age of use
is those over the age 26.
There is relatively
low rates of use
for those under the age
of 17, which I think
would surprise lot of
people because there’s
a perception that this is a
commonly abused drug in younger
people.

How To Grow Marijuana Legally In Oklahoma Learn More Here Today

One of the biggest
problems with marijuana
is because it is the
most commonly used drug,
it is falsely considered
a gateway drug.
So the drug that people
typically use first
is marijuana.
Of people who smoke
marijuana, very few of them
go on to do any
other illicit drugs.
But because so many people
it’s their drug of first use,
it’s falsely believed
to be a gateway drug.
And there’s absolutely
no evidence for that.
A big problem with
cannabinoids is
there is a dramatic rise in
the use of synthetic marijuana,
particularly for those
under the age of 18.
So if you look at this
chart, it no surprise alcohol
is the most commonly used
drug amounts high schoolers.
Of those using a drug,
39% use marijuana.
From there it’s synthetic
marijuana, prescription
painkillers, which we’ll visit
as our next topic, ecstasy,
cocaine, inhalants,
dextromethorphan, which we just
talked about in our
previous lecture,
and other drugs are much,
much lower on the use scale.
So alcohol and drugs account for
the vast majority of drugs that
are used by high schoolers.
There are three different
types of the cannabis plant.
C. sativa, which is hemp.
It’s tall and woody.
Indica, it’s grown in India.
It’s shorter and has much
higher THC concentrations.
And Ruderalis, grown in
northern Europe and Asia,
has a shorter growth
period, but a lower potency.
Some question about these
being different species
or different varieties.
Not really clear there.
Important to understand
these are not
self-pollinating plants.
The female plants need pollen
from the male to reproduce.
So the flowers of the
females exude a sticky resin
to help catch males.
Pollen and protects seeds
from heat and insects.
And it contains the
highest THC concentration.
So buds are what people are
after when they are looking
for a higher quality marijuana.

The active ingredients
in cannabis,
there are over 80
cannabinoids known.
The most common is delta 9
tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC.
This is the same as the
delta 1 tetrahydrocannabinol.

Variety of cannabis
products are produced.
Hashish and charas are the
derived resinous exulates
of the female flowers.
And this is that resin that is
produced by– that sticky resin
produced by female flowers.
This is the most potent.
It contains about
10% to 20% THC.
Ganja and sensimilla,
the dried material
from the tops of female plants.
About 5% to 8% THC.
And then bhang and marijuana,
the dried remainder
of the plant, 2% to 5% THC.
So when we’re talking
about legalize marijuana,
it’s somewhere in here.
We’re usually really
talking about legalized THC.
We’ll talk a little
bit about those issues,
because as legalization
has occurred,
potency has increased
in a variety of products
with sort of distilled versions
of THC have come on the market.
In terms of the
history of cannabis,
it’s certainly ancient.
It was cultivated
and widely dispersed
before recorded history.

The earliest written accounts
come from China around 2700 BC.
Around 1500 before
the common ear,
it spread to Southeast
Asia and India.
The Scythians brought it
into Palestine, Egypt,
to Russia in Europe.
It’s been for fiber to
make rope and cloth.
In fact, hemp is one of
the primary strongest ways
to make rope.
And certainly hemp clothing
has made a dramatic comeback.

It’s also used
for oil, medicine,
and of course, intoxication.
The Greek physician
Galen cautioned that use
may lead to senseless talk.
I think anyone who’s
hung out with people
who smoke marijuana a lot, know
that that happens quite a bit.
In the Middle Ages, it came to
the Muslim world and Africa,
said to make your
crave sweets– again,
no surprise there–
improve sex and creativity.
There are certainly
some lore about cannabis
as an aphrodisiac.
Certainly people like to
smoke marijuana and have sex.
Questions about whether or
not it leads to creativity.
But they’re also seems
to be some indications
that it decreases sex drive.
Is all an open question.
So some of you may know that
the term assassin actually
comes from a derivative
of the word hashish.
In fact, the cult of assassins
smoked a great deal of hashish
until they were sort
of driven into a state
of religious fervor and
sort of indoctrinated
and then were sent off
to make assassinations.
So assassin is from the
hashishia or hashish.
And so those have
common derivative words.
And that’s not by accident.
In the modern era,
Napoleon’s troops
brought back for recreational
use from wars in Egypt.
It became very
popular in France.
Many wrote similar descriptions
of the cannabinoid high.
Medicinal use was
reported in many papers
to be useful for
treating many elements.
Now remember, cocaine was
also thought to be medicinal.
So this sort of a long
history of medicinal uses
of drugs that are not is
something to keep in mind.
Now, we will talk about
potential medicinal uses
of marijuana, because I
think there is a potential.
But it certainly does
not treat tetanus
or mental illness or addiction.
Possibly, I’ve
heard lore of there
being some help in asthma, but
it’s usually offset by the fact
that you’re inhaling smoke.
In fact, oftentimes will
trigger asthma in people.
In migraine
headaches, that seems
to be the one area that there
may be some evidence for.
In the 20th century,
there is some belief
that prohibition
may have facilitated
increased use of cannabis.

I sort of have this
long held thesis
that people will get
high no matter what.
So if you’ve ban
one thing, they’ll
just find something else.
I think our history
with cannabis
certainly is part of that.
So we have this
prohibition commissioner.
So when prohibition failed, he
tried to eradicate cannabis.
Nothing like trying to
keep yourself employed.
So 1930, he became Commissioner
of the Federal Narcotics
Bureau, dramatic media attacks
led to the Marijuana Tax
Act of 1937.
There are some really
terrifically, god awful movies
that were made at this
time about marijuana fever
and all sorts of
crazy, Ganja Highway,
and it’s just they’re coming
to kill your kids and all kinds
of crazy stuff.
So the Marijuana Tax Act of
1937 did not directly outlaw
cannabis, but
imposed a tax on it,
and ended the legal
medicinal use of cannabis
until approximately 1970, which
is, of course, when it became
under the Comprehensive Drug
Abuse Prevention and Control
Act, reduce the federal
penalty for possession
from felony to a misdemeanor.

But, of course, it is still
considered a Scheduled 1
narcotic with no medicinal use.
Of course, several
states, many states,
the majority states actually
have legalized marijuana
for medicinal purposes.
So 18 states and the
District of Columbia
have legalized the medicinal
this use of marijuana.
Two states, Washington
and Colorado
have legalized marijuana
for non-medicinal use.
This has actually since been
expanded to other states
as well.
So the District
of Columbia has so
legalized marijuana
use, but not sales.

And we’ll take, again, a look
at more updated statistics
here in a moment.

So where in the brain does
cannabis have an effect?
Well, we’ll take a look at that.
And we’ll take a look
at receptors subtypes
and talk about endocannabinoids.

There are more heavily labeled
main sites in which marijuana
has its effect.
Is Basal ganglia, which
affects motor performance,
which is why people
who consume marijuana
have some levels of ataxia.
The cerebellum, which
is certainly responsible
for motor performance and
also for our perception
of time, which is why
you get altered time
perception in people who
are smoking cannabis.
No surprise.
Cannabis has some implications
for the hippocampus.
So it does have a
negative effect on memory.
And then the prefrontal
cortex, which
is associated with attention,
memory, and concentration.
Again, no surprise.
I think the stereotype
of a typical pothead
is someone who’s not able to
concentrate or pay attention.
And that’s certainly
borne out by the data.
There is very little binding
in brain sites, of brain site
areas that control breathing.
This makes it very different
from other potential pain
relievers.
So we’ll talk about
medicinal uses of marijuana
as an analgesic.
And it does have the
benefit that it does not
reduce breathing, much
like the opiate analgesics
we’ll talk about.
So there are different
receptor subtypes
that are affected by cannabis.
They are cannabinoid receptors.
They were discovered in 1988
and 1990, which are CB1 and CB2.
Both are G protein
Coupled Receptors.
So these are not
ionotropic receptors.
These are G protein
Coupled Receptors.
And they have a very
complicated mechanism of action.
So CB1 receptors are
found throughout the body.
But the highest
concentrations are
in the central nervous system.
The CB2 receptors
are mostly found
out that outside the
central nervous system
in the immune system and
with inflammatory conditions
in microglia, which may
have productive effects
in the central nervous system.
So we will talk about
how it’s possible
that by activating these
other cannabinoid receptors
you can affect the immune
system and potentially
inflammatory conditions.

So cannabinoid receptors
do exist simply for us
to simulate with
marijuana smoking.
There’s a purpose for them.
And so we have what are
called endocannabinoids.
And these are
produced internally.
We refer to
endogenous substances
as those that are
internally generated.
So an endocannabinoid is one
that is endogenously created,
whereas an exogenous
substance are
those with external sources.
So when we talk about
endogenous hormones
versus exogenous hormones,
an endogenous hormone
is naturally occurring.
An exogenous one is one that
has been added or supplemented.
So endocannabinoids
are completely
different from other
neurotransmitters.
They are produced on demand.
They’re not stored in vesicles.
They are produced by the
postsynaptic neuron and act
on the presynaptic neuron.
That is they work in
the opposite direction
of all other neurotransmitters.
What happens is they
inhibit further release
of neurotransmitters from
the presynaptic neuron.
So they are inhibitory.
But they are released by
the postsynaptic neuron
to essentially shut the
presynaptic neuron up
to get it to stop releasing
neurotransmitters.
So by releasing these
endocannabinoids,
they are able to affect
neurotransmission
in an up stream manner.
So pretty remarkable.
The pharmacokinetics
of cannabis,
of course, primary
mode of administration
is inhalation, so smoking,
burning dried marijuana
buds is still the most prevalent
form of administration.
In general, you get about a
quarter to half of THC present.
Approximately 50% of
cannabinoids enter the lungs.
And almost all of
that enters the body.
So you get about 4/10
to 10 milligrams of THC
that’s actually absorbed into
the blood from smoking one
joint.
Reaches the brain
at about 30 seconds.
Peaks at about 30 to
60 minutes and lasts
about three to four hours.
The subjective state can
last for up to 12 hours.
But the primary effects last
for about three or four hours.
It’s difficult to do quantify
dose effect since there
is great variability in use.
So trying to figure out dose
response relationships is
actually rather difficult. And
because THC is highly lipid
soluble, it’s highly
affected by things
like body fat concentration.
I do want to stop for a moment
and talk about vaping with THC.
So in some jurisdictions,
THC is available for use
in e-cigarettes.
So it’s just like vaping, which
we talked about with nicotine.
But the oil for
use for vaporizing
THC has much higher
concentrations of THC than does
dried marijuana.
So always be mindful
of a dose response
relationships when using a
new kind of product like this.
So if you’re in a jurisdiction
where this is legal,
understand that this
vaporized version of THC
is not like what you might be
used if you’ve smoked marijuana
before.
So please keep that in mind.
Oral administration
is another way
in which marijuana is consumed.
And this is on the
rise, certainly
in jurisdictions where it
is legal, like Colorado.
These are referred to
as marijuana edibles.
So while consuming marijuana
in edibles is not new,
the high concentration in THC
oils used to make these is new,
those being
commercially available.
And it’s important to understand
the pharmacokinetics of edibles
are quite different in the
beginning from inhalation.
First of all, the time to
peak plasma concentration
can be up to two hours.
So a very significant delay
in peak plasma concentration.
The problem with
that, of course,
is that people often
will continue consuming,
thinking that they’re
getting no effect,
and then end up very, very high.
So it’s something
to be mindful of.
You have to wait a longer period
of time with marijuana edibles.
Again, my primary concern here
is to keeping everyone safe.
And there have been a number of
issues with marijuana edibles
in my home state of Colorado.
And so low doses,
starting out slow,
waiting time period is
particularly important.
Important to understand that
TCH is highly lipid soluble.
So the fat content of
an edible can influence
the absorption of THC.
Brownies are a time honored
way of administering THC.
They used to be called
Alice B Toklas brownies.

And obviously, brownies have a
pretty high fat concentration.
And so anything that’s in
chocolate, that’s in something
made with butter,
those can directly
influence absorption of THC.
Another important
thing to understand
is a tolerance to inhaled
THC does not always result
in tolerance to editable THC.
So someone who smokes
a lot of marijuana
might be influenced much
more quickly and much more
significantly by edible THC.
So it’s important
to understand this
is a completely different way
of administering marijuana
from smoking it.
In Colorado, the standard does
for commercially available
products is 10
milligrams per dose.
So trying to approximate
what a joint might
be, now again, because
there are differences
in the absorption
of pharmacokinetics,
it might be advisable,
again, if you consume
one of these products
to start with half
of whatever that doses,
just to be on the safe side.
I’ve posted to
the course website
some links to where you
can find information
about safe consumption.
So in terms of the
distribution of THC,
it’s taken out of the blood fast
and moves into fatty tissue.
About 20% to 30% of a single
dose may remain in fatty tissue
for up to a week.
And continuous doses
may accumulate in fat.
And it may take weeks to
leave after use stops.
This is one of the problems
with using marijuana and drug
testing is it stays in your
system for a very long time,
particularly if you have
higher levels of body fat,
or if you use
marijuana continuously,
you’re much more likely to
test positive for marijuana
in a test.
One of the questions about this
question of reverse tolerance
is people sometimes
actually report
instead of getting more
tolerant, less tolerant
as they smoke more.
And it may be because they’ve
got so much left over marijuana
in their system.
It’s an open question.

Cannabis and marijuana,
or THC is mostly
metabolized in the liver.
There are some
active metabolites.
And there are
complex interactions
among the various cannabinoids.
The half life of THC is hard
to estimate given the storage
of THC in fatty tissues.
The estimate is so
round 4 to 6 days.
So it’s pretty slow half life
because it just hangs around
so long in those fatty tissues.

Quite different from most
drugs we’ve talked about.
About 40% to 65% consumed
marijuana or cannabinoids
are excreted in feces,
the rest in urine.
A chronic user may show positive
urine tests for up to a month
after stopping marijuana.
So keep that in mind if
you expect be drug tested,
and you’re somebody
who uses marijuana,
you’re going to need about
a month to get that out
of your system.
In terms of the
pharmacodynamics of THC,
THC produces a sedation and
a mild to moderate analgesia.
This is limited by its
partial agonists action.
It seems to alleviate
anxiety and reduce aggression
and anger, and, of course,
does cause some time
and sensory distortions.
The time distortions
seem to be pretty clear.

Also, it causes
impaired coordination.
Both the time and sensory
distortions– the time
distortions and the
impaired coordination
seem to be due to its
influence on the cerebellum.
There’s some impair
cognitive functioning.
It impairs the ability to
focus attention and filter out
irrelevant information.
The deficiencies
are subtle and may
involve persistent absorption
of THC from fat stores.

Again, depending on a time
from use and the level of use,
there’s emerging evidence
about the effects of THC
on developing brains that will
be worth keeping an eye on.
And also on emotional regulation
and emotional perception,
there seems to be some
emerging evidence.
So as that evidence
becomes more clear,
we’ll find out more
about the longer term
effects of marijuana.
Now that it’s legal in
places, it’s much easier
to be able to conduct research.
So there are, of course,
physiological and psychological
effects of marijuana.
The physiological
effects include
that THC is a bronchial
dilator initially,
but then it may
constrict bronchia.

So this is the
problem with using it
for something like asthma.
It may dilate
branchia initially.
It may cause severe
asthma symptoms later
if it constricts the bronchia.
It certainly impairs lung
function due to smoking.
This is due to the fact that
you’re inhaling smoke, just
like inhaling cigarette smoke.
If you use intravenous
THC, in an experiment,
lung functioning is unaffected.
And so it is clearly
due to smoking.
Question about
whether or not lung
cancer and other
types of diseases
might increase as
marijuana use increases
as it becomes legal
in many jurisdictions.
It’s too early to tell that.
And certainly many THC
users also smoke tobacco.
And so it’s hard to
dissociate those.

In terms of the cardiovascular
effects of marijuana,
it both dilates
small blood vessels
in the whites of the eye.
So that explains why marijuana
users have such bloodshot eyes.
It increases blood
pressure and heart rate.
It may be frightening
to a novice,
but eventually they
become tolerant of that
and don’t even notice it.
It decreases
intraocular pressure.
So this is actually one of those
beneficial effects for someone
who has glaucoma.
Glaucoma is an increase
in intraocular pressure.
And marijuana or cannabis
will reduce that pressure.
And there’s no developed
tolerance with that.
They’re currently developing
some drops as a potential way
to get this effect without some
of the potential deleterious
side effects, if
you’re not someone who
is interested in getting high.
The peripheral CB2
receptors in the heart
might be productive
against aschemic damage.
So there, again, is
some potential benefit
for activation of
these other receptors.

There is no decrease
in respiration.
There are now known
overdose deaths
from marijuana, that is through
productions and respiration.
The deaths from
marijuana tend to be
things like people wigging out.
There’s a case recently
in Colorado of a guy
who consumed edible
marijuana cannabis products
and jumped out of a window.

Certainly tragic,
but not an overdose.

There are questions about
the reproductive system.
It may slightly decrease
testosterone and female hormone
levels.
THC certainly can
cross the placenta.
It’s not clear whether or
not it’s teratogen or not.
There seems to be mild
fetal growth reduction
and maternal lung damage.
In terms of the
immune system, there’s
no consistent impairment
in healthy subjects.
So that’s some good news.
There’s no evidence
that users are
more susceptible to infections.
Question about
whether or not there
might be trouble with weak
immune system patients,
so patients with HIV or AIDS,
people undergoing transplants.
Again, open questions
in the research
fields to try to figure
out what’s happening there.

We do know that marijuana
is effective against nausea
and vomiting.
So this is one of the
reasons why marijuana is open
for medical– seems to be
one of the biggest reasons
for medical use is to limit
the nausea and vomiting caused
by chemotherapy with
cancer patients.
Inhalation of cannabis seems
to be better than the edibles.
But there are
problems with smoking.
Some people find
smoking nauseating.
And again, eating a high
fat brownie with THC in it
might also be nauseating.
Tolerance will
develop over time.
But it certainly appears to
be useful to mitigate the side
effects of chemotherapy.

Anybody who’s used
marijuana knows
that you do get quite a bit dry
mouth associated with marijuana
and quite a bit of thirst.
Some increase consumption
of snack food, this
may depend on the
setting that you’re
in or the amount of
cannabis consumed.
Of course, that’s the
prototypical munchies.
There are some motor effects,
including muscle weakness,
tremor, and ataxia.
It may be useful as
an anti-spasmatic.
That is it might be a
good muscle relaxer.
Certainly not as good as
something like Valium,
but potentially useful for that.
In terms of the
psychological effects,
this is, of course,
where most people
find why they might want
to consume marijuana, aside
from its medical effects.
Certainly, there are
functional effects.
It may impair
performance of driving.
We certainly know that
there is decreased attention
and decreased concentration.
They’re easily distracted.
There’s no consistent evidence
for enhancement of creativity.
Certainly there are
alterations in perception,
including decreased visual
perception, particularly
peripheral visual perception.
This is one the
reasons why driving
under the influence
of marijuana is
very dangerous because of this
decreased visual perception.
It certainly decreases
pain perception.
So it may function
as an analgesic.
This is an area where
there is research ongoing
to determine whether or not this
might be a better drug for some
of my peripheral neuropathy.
There are certainly
decreased time perception.
People overestimate
the passage of time.

That again seems to
be due to alterations
in cerebellum functioning.
Short-term memory is
certainly impaired.
This is called temporal
disintegration.
That is a loss of the ability
to retain important information
for a purpose.
So again, this seems to be
related to the distorted time
sense.
They can’t seem to put
together things in order
and coordinate information
to try to get something done.
And again, I think this fits
right in with what most of us
know about those who
smoke a lot of marijuana.
So the subjective
effects include, at low
to moderate doses, a
sense of relaxation.
People get dreamy,
introspective, laughing,
certainly get a
little bit giggly.
Sometimes you can
get mood swings.
That is people can
get a little anxious
or panic, particularly
at higher doses.
More than any other
drugs, effects
are modulated by surrounding.
So mood of others is
certainly affected.
So whatever the
crowd might be can
influence the mood of
people using, along
with their friends.
Again, this tends
to be a social drug.
Not a lot of people go off and
smoke marijuana by themselves,
although some certainly do.
But primarily seems to be
more, again, oftentimes
a social drug.
And the move others
and the surrounding
certainly can affect
the subjective effects.

Open question remains as
to the long-term effects
of marijuana use.
At this stage, there isn’t
very good evidence either way.
There’s evidence for
alterations in brain structures.
But whether those are
positive or negative
effects are unknown.
So the question is will
long-term cannabis produce
damage like alcohol does.
Seven months after
exposure, there
were no detectable
differences in behavior,
hippocampal volume, neuron
size, or synaptic condemn
and dendritic anatomy.
But again, this depends on
what length of exposure,
time of starting, all
sorts of variables
left to be figured out.
So this is still an open,
scientific question.
There is clearly one positive
thing about marijuana
is there’s no data is to
support a causal relationship
between cannabis and aggression.
In fact, in most
studies, they find
that cannabis is associated
with a decrease in violence.
Pot users aren’t violent
when they’re using marijuana.
There is, of course, some
perceived association
between marijuana and crime,
because of its association
with the illicit drug trade.
Those are separate issues.
It’s not caused by
the drug itself,
but by the trafficking of drugs.
And that’s a separate issue.
Again, relating back to what
we talked about previously,
that prohibition may have been
part of the cause of increase
in marijuana use, it certainly
set up a drug distribution
network when organized
crime formed to start
distributing illicit alcohol.
As soon as probation ended,
they switched to other drugs
to distribute.
And so those same
distribution networks
we used for decades for
trafficking heroin, cocaine,
and marijuana.
And in some places,
they are still used.
Of course, most of the illicit
drugs we get in this country
come through from the
Mexican drug cartels,
although certainly now,
marijuana is coming in
through legal sources.
And we’ll talk about the public
policy implications of that.
So really important
question is what
to do about marijuana
and driving,
particularly in states
where it’s legal.
So according to a
2006 national survey,
about 49,000
students in grades 9
through 12, a percentage of 12th
graders using marijuana in cars
was higher than
those who presented
using alcohol in cars,
13% versus 10%, not
a huge difference, for
all intents and purposes,
close as about the same, so on
par with drinking and driving.
Colorado is the
first limit state
to limit THC levels
while driving.
There’s huge problem with that.
And testing is difficult
trying to quantify use.
And blood levels aren’t really
associated with impairment.
So this is a really
open question
trying to figure out how to come
up with some sort of standard.
So they really
probably are going
to have to end up with some
sort of impairment test.
It’s a really tough question.
But it’s a really important
one, because we obviously
want to limit
intoxicated driving
and have to come
up with some way
to determine whether or
not someone is intoxicated
through marijuana use.
Just to give you an idea of
the psychomotor effects, as you
increase in THC
concentration, you
get increases about 50%
impaired at fairly moderate
the concentrations.
And then it kind of levels off.
You’re going to get
about as uncoordinated
as you’re going to be.

One thing that happens
with cannabis use
is you do get tolerance
that develops readily
animals within days to the
physiological and behavioral
effects.
But it Requires
pretty high doses.
Tolerance in humans requires
high doses and chronic use.
In one study, high doses
of THC showed tolerance
to the high, heart rate
increase, cognitive and motor
impairment, et cetera.
So there is some developed
tolerance to these drugs.
Lasted for about a
week off the drug.
But tolerance did not occur
to one cigarette a day
for 28 days.
So joint a day for 28 days,
no tolerance develops.
So not a lot of tolerance
developing in marijuana users.
And any tolerance
that does develop
is not due to changes
in pharmacokinetics.
That is there is not an
increase in metabolism.
There’s not an
alteration in metabolism.
So it’s not like
other drugs, where
the body learns to
quickly deal with a drug
and it is able to
eliminate it more quickly.
That’s not occurring here.
THC, however, does produce down
regulation and desensitization
of cannabis receptors.
So there is a little
bit of changes
in the sensitivity of
receptors, depending on dose.
So what about dependence?
Really no evidence for
any physical dependence
to marijuana.
More frequently described are
mild to moderate withdrawal
symptoms, about 50% to 60%
of users who cease use,
characterized basically by
affective and behavioral
symptoms, including anxiety,
irritability, some stomach pain
and reduced appetite,
reduced food consumption.
And this may be one
of the things that
contributes to continued use.
But there’s no
evidence for addiction.
You can certainly be
attached to cannabis use.
So being attached to
cannabis is not so much
a function of any inherent
psychopharmacological
properties of the drug, as
it is emotionally driven
by underlying psychopathology.
So there’s no evidence for
physical dependence, maybe
some psychological
dependence, or just simply
attachment to its use.
But no evidence for
physical dependence.

So what about medical marijuana?
Well, there are certainly
some possible therapeutic uses
for medical marijuana.
Certainly to treat
nausea and vomiting,
and this is what we
call an antiemetic.

It’s been shown in the past
to be an important appetite
stimulant in patients
with wasting diseases.
It become as an important way
to protect the brain following
a head injury.
Treatment of
spasticity secondary
to neurological diseases.
So muscles spasticity,
again, that’s that muscle
relaxant cases.
Some chronic pain
syndromes, visceral pain,
such as interstitial
cystitis or pain
for multiple scores sclerosis.
All of these are
potential therapeutic uses
for medical marijuana.

So again, perhaps the
best known use of cannabis
is an analgesic in the
management of cancer pain.
Again, prevention of
nausea and vomiting.
So there are a
variety of effects
that made be able to be used.
So if you look at this
little handy chart,
this decreased
interocular pressure,
again, treatment for glaucoma.
So decreased spasticity
attacks and muscle weakness,
MS, cerebral palsy,
spinal cord injury,
and decreased pain
in cancer patients.
Palliative care for anorexia.
Caused by opioids
or anti-viral drugs,
so again trying to
increase appetite.
The antiemetic affects,
certainly again,
works if we can get
cancer pain down,
and reduction in nausea and
vomiting from chemotherapy
has certainly something to do.
And again, this bronchial
asthma by administrating it
in a way that doesn’t result
in that bronchial constriction,
might be able to come up
with a good way to do that.
So Sativex is the world’s first
natural whole plant marijuana
extract pharmaceutical and
is designed to relieve pain
from multiple sclerosis.
It’s also an effective
analgesic for neuropathic pain.
The manufacturer is currently
seeking FDA approval
in the United States.
But for the FDA
to consider it, it
would need to concede
that the entire cannabis
plant has medicinal value.
And so that, of course,
is a political question.
In the US, over 350,000
persons are diagnosed with MS.
And 11 states have laws
that allow– it more than 11
now– a variety of states allow
laws that allow medical use.
So currently, medical marijuana
is legal in 20 other states.
Recreational use of marijuana
is legal in four states
and the District of Columbia.
Alaska, Colorado,
Washington, and Oregon
all provide for a
legal marijuana use.
And then medical marijuana
is legal in 20 other states.
So now we’re at 24 states
where marijuana use is
legal in some form.
So should we legalize
marijuana further or not?
Well, there are, of course,
some arguments for and against.
And I’m going to
briefly summarize
some of these arguments that
have been made on both sides.
The cost of prevention is high.
This could be spent
more usefully.
Certainly, the violent crimes,
corruption, and huge profits
of organized crime
would be reduced
by making marijuana legal.
Taxes could be generated
for useful purposes.
Individual freedom should allow
us to do whatever we want.
Legalization would not lead
to an explosion of drug use
and actually reduce
its popularity.
The evidence is currently
mixed on that right now.
But it’s a question.
And I think security and
safety of the drug available
is an important pro of that.
And people, again, regain
the respect for law
because this always seems to
one of those laws that exists,
but very few people care about.
I know that’s not quite true.
But there is that perception.
Some cons to legalization.
Some people say most citizens
do not want laws reduced.
Polls are actually showing
that that’s not the case.
There’s a belief that
greater availability
would lead to increased use
and result in more problems.
And it would be more like
alcohol and nicotine.
That legalization would
increase health costs
and rise and use up all
the potential tax benefits.
The right to privacy
is not relevant
and drug taking is not something
you have a right to do.
There is, of course,
a danger to non-users
if people are intoxicated
at work or in public.
Drug related crime
would not go away.
And the market would move
to another substance.
And underage kids
would be targeted.
And then that there’s not
enough food in the world,
so why should we waste more
land on growing cannabis.
And we would get more
money from confiscating
resources of drug sellers.
So these are some
of the arguments.
There are a lot of areas
that we need to think about
in public policies.
I’m going to leave you with
this note as food for thought.
We have much to develop in
the area of marijuana policy.
How do we regulate
its production?
It’s distribution?

Banking and financing is a huge
problem for legal marijuana
users, because banks
so far have not
been allowed to take money
from shops selling marijuana
in states where it’s legal.
So they have to become
all cash businesses,
because they can’t take
credit cards, which
the crime caused by all cash
businesses should be obvious.
As an open question, should
would be marketing marijuana
as a commodity?
Should it be just like
corn and wheat and grain?
So we just regulate
it as a commodity?
Of course, there are issues
involving intoxication.
How do we set legal limits?
How do you make sure that
we have safe workplaces?
And at the end of the day,
we just need more data
in all these areas.
So there’s lots of work
to be done in this area.
So if it’s an area that
you’re interested in,
there’s plenty of
work to be done
in here and lots of research
opportunities for this.
So the next installment,
we’re going to talk about some
of the public policy issues.
So that’ll be a separate
discussion for this.
And then we’ll be moving into
talking about opioid or opioid
analgesics.

37 How To Grow Marijuana Legally In Oklahoma Learn More Here Near Me


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2 thoughts to How To Grow Marijuana Legally In Oklahoma Learn More Here At 0:28

  1. Maybe the inability to relax focus would debilitate focus therefore in such situations cannabinoids have paradoxical or biphasic effects

    So get your weight up a bit 🙂